Australian Cities Are Some of the Most Liveable in the World

Looking to reside or invest in Australia? It might not be a bad idea to do so, with a recent report ranking four Australian cities as some of the most liveable in the world.

How “livable” is your city? Moreover, what exactly makes one city more livable than another? The Economist Intelligence Unit’s annual Liveability Report ranked Melbourne as the world’s most liveability city in 2013, with an overall score of 97.5 out of 100, while Adelaide, Sydney and Perth also made the list at numbers five, seven and nine, respectively. Notably, Melbourne was named the world’s most liveable city for the third year running, nudging out the Austrian capital city, Vienna.

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Understanding Card Data Encryption Standards

Card data encryption standards are primarily a set of algorithms that are used to encode information concerning the private financial information of individual cardholders. The card data encryption standards that are used today got their beginnings at IBM in the 1970s. They are based on a design created by Horst Feistel who submitted his ideas to the national bureau of standards when they asked for all professionals to try and adapt a way to encrypt this type of information.

This first card data encryption standard has now been replaced with versions that allow for even more security than the first versions had. At that time we had no idea how much the use of the internet was going to grow and we had no idea of the technology that people were going to invent. The ever growing and changing technology made it necessary for the card data encryption methods to be ever changing and progressive.

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What Are Some of The Different Card Data Encryption Techniques?

Data encryption is needed so that the information that is contained on a credit card does not fall into the hands of an unauthorized party. To protect the identity of the cardholder data encryption is used. This simply means that the information is displayed in such a manner that someone who does not have the proper software to decode the encrypted information will only see symbols, not the actual letters and numbers.

One method of data encryption is known as hashing encryption. This is likely the first type of encrypting that was done to protect the information on credit cards. Hashing creates a fixed length signature using an algorithm. One of the reasons that hashing is so good at keeping information private is because a minor change in the message that is being transmitted will cause major changes in the way the hashes appear. This method quickly alerts you to the possibility of tampering.

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The Different Electronic Payment Systems

In the past there was only one source of payment for merchandise and services so there was only one payment systems needed. Then the payment systems were adapted to accept checks and promissory notes from people and companies. The payment systems had to further evolve to accept electronic transactions using credit cards, debit cards, and the newer types of acceptable payments.

Today people have many different options in the way they will pay for the items they buy. There are just as many different payment systems in place to accept those different payment sources.

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